Type of decorative, commercial stones: From a commercial point of view stones are divided into different types as follows:
-Hard stones or Granite group.
-Semi-hard stones or limestone group.
-Serpentine stone group.
Hard stones or Granite group: All hard and silica stones including Firestone (e. g . granites and Rivulets), special firestones (e. g. Syenite, Diorite and Gabbro), Exodus stones (e.g. Trakit, Andesite, Basalt, Nepheline Syenite, propidotits, procsinits and Amphipolis) Semi-hard stones or limestone group: Including Travertine, Marble, Dolomites and other crystallized and semi-crystallized limestones which are called marmoreal, kaolin and crystal.
Sandstone group: Including those which are made of pieces of quartz and feldspar with a mixture of sillies or clay or oxides of iron. Finally, types of non-lime stones which are alterlized and have specific color and are called serpanti group.
Different types of Conglomerates are sometimes considered as a member of granite or as sandstone group. Iran has sources of all above-mentioned types. Up to 2012, 1300 utilization License has been issued for stone mines and most of which are active now. Out of 32 provinces in Iran, there are 16 provinces with granite mine, marble in provinces, Travertine in 12 provinces, marmorated in 22 provinces and finally, there are crystal and kaolin mines in 15 provinces.
There are sandstone and Conglomerate mines in some provinces. Note the stone selection
One should be careful with selection factors, these are :
accumulation, crystallization, size of crystals and their special type of bonds, color, breakage, joint and opening, pressure, elasticity, curvature and cutting solidity, water absorption, electrical and heat transmission, distortion resulting from received energy, hardness, resistance against acid, oxidation, fraction, cutting and polishability and finally luster which is based on chemical component, type of stone formation tectonic and side effects. Some of these characteristics are useful for choosing digging method and blasting. Some are useful in fitting or fixing the stones.
These characteristics follow: Outward and real special gravity, spondees, water absorbability, pieces correlation, resistance against being frozen, resistance against a different degree of heat or temperature, pressure solidity, resistance against fraction and stroke, resistance against fraction caused by traffic or passage module elasticity and hardness of stone.
The Caspian Sea, which is the largest lake water in the world (424,240 sq. km.), lies some 85 feet below the sea level.
It is comparatively shallow, and for some centuries has been slowly shrinking in size.
Its salt content is considerably less than that of the oceans and though it abounds with fish, its shelly coasts do not offer any good natural harbors, and sudden and violent storms make it dangerous for small boats.
The important ports on the Caspian coast are Bandar Anzali, Noshahr, and Bandar Turkman. Other Lakes Along the frontier between Iran and Afghanistan there are several marshy lakes which expand and contract according to the season of the year.
The largest of these, the Seestan (Hamoon-Sabari), in the north of the Seestan & Baluchistan province, is alive with wildfowl.
Real freshwater lakes are exceedingly rare in Iran. There probably are no more than 10 lakes in the whole country, most of them brackish and small in size.
The largest are: Lake Urmiya (area: 3,900-6,000 sq. km. depending on season) in Western Azerbaijan province , Namak (1,806 sq. km.) in the Markazi province, Bakhtegan (750 sq. km.) in Fars province, Tasht (442 sq. km.) in Fars province, Moharloo (208 sq. km.) in Fars province, Howz Soltan (106.5 sq. km.) in Markazi province.
The Persian Gulf is the shallow marginal part of the Indian Ocean that lies between the Arabian Peninsula and south-east Iran. The sea has an area of 240,000 square kilometers.
Its length is 990 kilometers, and its width varies from a maximum of 338 kilometers to a minimum of 55 kilometers in the Strait of Hormuz, It is bordered on the north, north-east, and east by Iran, on the north-west by Iraq and Kuwait, on the west and south-west by Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and Qatar, and on the south and south-east by the United Arab Emirates and partly Oman. The term the Persian Gulf is often used to refer not only proper to the Persian Gulf but also to its outlets, the Strait of Hormuz and the Gulf of Oman, which opens into the Arabian Sea.
The most important islands of the Persian Gulf on the Iranian side are Minoo, Kharg, Sheikh Saas, Sheikh Sho'ayb, Hendurabi, Kish, Farur, Sirri, Abu Mussa, the Greater and Lesser Tunb, Qeshm, Hengam, Larak, Farsi, Hormuz, and Lavan.
The notable ports on the Persian Gulf coast are Abadan, Khorramshahr, Bandar Imam Khomeini, Mahshahr, Deilam, Gonaveh, Rig, Bushehr, Bandar Lengeh, Bandar Abbas. The Iranian shore is mountainous, and there are often cliffs; elsewhere a narrow coastal plain with beaches, intertidal flats, and small estuaries borders the gulf. The coastal plain widens north of Bushehr on the eastern shore of the gulf and passes into the broad deltaic plain of the Tigris, Euphrates and Karun rivers.
It is noticeably asymmetrical in profile, with the deepest water occurring along the Iranian coast and a broad shallow area, which is usually less than 120 feet deep, along with the Arabian coast.
Most of the stones have similar color, monotonous design, and appearance, but the combination and the time of formulation together with later tectonic effects differ them, so they cannot be in the same collection.
Most of the extracted stones from a particular mine do not have the same characters in different dimension due to their layer position and structure.
Generally, soapstones, Toof, Andesite, Basalt, and Diabase are stable against heat, granites against acid, condensed limestone, dolomites, lime sandstone are stable against alkali. Stones with less resistance against fraction should not be used in buildings, floors, and steps or similar places.
Usually, each stone has its own joint system. Breaking in the simple way to determine characteristics of joints is to break the stone by a hammer for several times hence to determine the level of the joint.
Stones having more opening are suitable to use in panels and thin walls because of their lightness and resistance against heat and voice, but they should not be used in concrete. Moisture usually reduces the solidity of the stone. Thus moisturized stones have less solidity.
The crystals which form the stone might have a good resistance but the mixture which stick them together may not have been sufficient, so the stone may break easily. Stones which are used in the same weather as they have been extracted may have a long life. Colored limestones cannot resist sunlight and acidic weather so they may not be used in such conditions.
Stones which have less resistance against being frozen should not be used in cold areas. It is not advisable to use two kinds of stones with different resistance against friction in the floor, steps, and passages so that after a while a different surface smoothness can result. Stonecutter task is as important as selecting proper stone and utilization by the miner.
Stonecutter is responsible to cut the stone in its right way, polish and categorize them based on their usage.